Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Gertrude of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay -- Character of Gertrude

The Gertrude of Shakespeare’s Hamlet   â â Is Gertrude, in the Shakespearean dramatization Hamlet, a drag? A killer’s assistant? The ideal sovereign? A sham? This paper will address numerous inquiries concerning Claudius’ accomplice on the Danish seat.  In her paper, â€Å"Acts III and IV: Problems of Text and Staging,† Ruth Nevo clarifies how the hero’s negative standpoint toward Gertrude impacts his mentality toward Ophelia:  While it is accurately his absolute powerlessness to know her [Ophelia], or besides himself, that the scene, in this dramatically less difficult view, would permit us to see as the focal point of his anguish. He is tormented definitely by questions, not by affirmations. What's more, how in fact would it be a good idea for him to know what Ophelia is? It is safe to say that she is cherishing and devoted to him in spite of parental power? Or on the other hand consistent to the last mentioned and in this way bogus to him? What has she been told about him? Is he not testing her with his hyperbolic statement:  I am extremely pleased, vindictive, yearning; with a larger number of offenses at my back than I have musings to placed them in, creative mind to give them shape, or time to act them in?  His mom has inclined him to trust in women’s deceptiveness, has delivered in him an aversion from sex and the tricks of sex; he couldn't draw Ophelia’s face by his examination; she has declined his letters and denied him get to; presently restores his blessings. What type of mischievous cheating will he anticipate? (49-50)  At the beginning of the disaster Hamlet seems wearing serious dark. His mom, Gertrude, is evidently upset by this and solicitations of him:   â â â Good Hamlet, cast thy nighted shading off,  â â â And let thine eye resemble a companion on Denmark.  â â â Do not for ever with thy vailed... ...loom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Tragic Form in Shakespeare. N.p.: Princeton University Press, 1972.  Pitt, Angela. â€Å"Women in Shakespeare’s Tragedies.† Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Excerpted from Shakespeare’s Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981.  Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/village/full.html  Smith, Rebecca. â€Å"Gertrude: Scheming Adulteress or Loving Mother?† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Wear Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. of â€Å"Hamlet†: A User’s Guide. New York: Limelight Editions, 1996.  Wilkie, Brian and James Hurt. â€Å"Shakespeare.† Literature of the Western World. Ed. Brian Wilkie and James Hurt. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992. Â

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Areas of Control and Interest in the Application of...

Introduction Research, doctoral or otherwise, is essential in all disciplines in order to continue to progress in the field and to improve practices. However, researchers must take care of conducting their research with the outmost care, following strict ethical principles and with integrity. Northcentral University holds its students to the upmost standards in ethical and professional practices in order to prepare the student for publishable scholarly writing. The question of ethical practices and integrity in research has been in place for centuries. However, violations s still occur, which is why it is important that researchers at all levels continue to discuss and learn about the topic and keep it in the forefront of any research†¦show more content†¦It is important to note that the responsible researcher will be very meticulous in avoiding any possible negative effects that he study could bring to any participant. For this reason, prior to starting the study, the researcher mu st hypothesis on any possible scenario that could occur, predict possible consequences and adjust the study to eliminate the negative effects it could render the participants. It is also important that the participants have the opportunity to ask questions before and after the study. When communicating with possible participants. It is essential to be very clear about their participation expectation and outline effects predicted by the researcher. For example, if the research requires the participation of individuals for six uninterrupted hours, while this may not be a negative effect, the participants must be aware that they will not be able to leave until the six hours if they plan on participation in the study. In addition, when providing the written consent, a legal disclaimer should be included to protect both the participants and the researcher. In addition, it is essential that the researcher is aware not only of the international guidelines that may govern the ethical practices but also the local, cultural restrictions that may be of a sensitive nature but highly relevant in keeping the research ethical yet maintaining the integrity of itsShow MoreRelatedWaste Management33554 Words   |  135 PagesLLP Analyzing the Fall of Two Giants . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Comptronix Corporation 4.3 Cendant Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying Inherent Risk and Control Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 119 127 137 Assessing the Control Environment and Evaluating Risk of Financial Statement Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Waste Management, Inc. 4.5 Xerox Corporation 4.6 Phar-Mor, Inc. Manipulating AccountingRead MoreThe Essential Component of Corporate Governance9749 Words   |  39 PagesBusiness Ethics: The Essential Component of Corporate Governance John D. Sullivan, Ph.D. Executive Director, CIPE Aleksandr Shkolnikov, Program Officer, Global, CIPE Given ï ¬ nancial scandals and the resulting new mandates on business, ï ¬ rms ï ¬ nd themselves pressed to develop strong codes of ethics to guide the behavior of board members, managers, and employees. 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Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 293-306. Luke, B. and Kearins, K. (2012), Attribution of words versus attribution of responsibilities: Academic plagiarism and university practice. Vaccine, 30(50):Read MoreHistory of Management Thought Revision17812 Words   |  72 Pagescould inspire or force workers to stop natural soldiering. f. Systematic soldiering resulted from group pressures for individuals to conform to output norms set by the work group. Taylor attributed this to a lump of labor theory. (Have your students define this theory and see if they can cite examples of group pressures -- at work, school, or wherever). g. Taylor felt he could overcome soldiering and improve the situation if workers knew that the production standards were established by aRead MoreInformation Security15951 Words   |  64 PagesConduct an Effective Literature Review in Support of Information Systems Research Yair Levy and Timothy J. Ellis Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA levyy@nova.edu ellist@nova.edu Abstract This paper introduces a framework for conducting and writing an effective literature review. The target audience for the framework includes information systems (IS) doctoral students, novice IS researchers, and other IS researchers who are constantlyRead MoreThe Accounting Profession and Nat39077 Words   |  157 PagesBOARD Prof. Edet Robinson Iwok, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. A. A. Okwoli, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. Abimaje Akpa, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. B. C. Osisioma, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. Edet B. Akpakpan, Ph.D, FCNA, Prof. A. C. Ezejulue, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. A. S. 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Sunday, May 10, 2020

Unbiased Report Exposes the Unanswered Questions on Best College Essay Topics to Avoid

<h1> Unbiased Report Exposes the Unanswered Questions on Best College Essay Topics to Avoid </h1> <h2> The Meaning of Best College Essay Topics to Avoid</h2> <p>Sports can likewise realize challenges with the Why Us question. All schools give classes and degrees, and many let you concentrate in another country. The schools don't have to hear something they definitely think about themselves. </p> <p>It is critical to understand that the affirmation advocate perusing your paper may not think about your game and will in all probability have no passionate connection to the consequences of the District 5 semi-last game. The exposition is the place to allow the confirmations office of your expected school get the chance to comprehend your character, character, and the abilities and strategies that aren't on your transcript. Second, look at whether there is adequate data accessible on the web or in your school library. In addition, the school would already be able to discover the rundown of camps and grants in another bit of the application. </p> <p>A great school paper can happen on an amazing stage. be that as it may, it can similarly as successfully occur in regular day to day existence. In the event that you own a companion or relative who peruses a lot of books in their extra time, I wager you accept they're entirely shrewd. You're endeavoring to show univers ities your absolute best self, subsequently it may seem irrational to energetically recognize a period you battled. Additionally, remember that no school is anxious to concede an individual who is excessively close-disapproved to pick up from being instructed by others. </p> <p>You won't need an unnecessary measure of aptitude recorded as a hard copy such sort of writings. After you know that you have to find interesting powerful paper themes to have the option to compose the perfect content conceivable, it's the chance to think about how to examine the structure of such messages. English language classes for the most part take a ton of composing. A few understudies can't create the most significant body sections appropriately. </p> <h2>What Does Best College Essay Topics to Avoid Mean? </h2> <p>Application papers about difficulties uncover how you react to trouble to people who are very intrigued by how you are going to deal with the ensuing four years completely all alone. Schools need to discover a sentiment of development and introspectionpinpoint the change and show your private development. A decent arrangement of understudies make the mistake of endeavoring to re-think what the affirmations people wish to hear in an article, and after that expound on something which isn't really key to their inclinations and interests. </p> <p>There's, clearly, a breaking point on the assortment of pages even our best scholars can create with a squeezing cutoff time, yet for the most part, we make sense of how to fulfill all the customers looking for pressing help. Other abused subjects incorporate things like persevering through an athletic physical issue or needing to be a star, states Ruderman. To refer to 1-2 sources to back up your contention would do the trick for the most part. You're the sole individual with your particular mix of individual characteristics, convictions, qualities, and encounters, and in this way you don't should lie or overstate to deliver your paper exceptional. </p> <p>On the other side, an individual may compose the most noticeably awful school application expositions or some other sorts of articles. Except if you're certain your involvement in higher school sports was extraordinary to the point that no one else might form a comparable paper, search for an alternate subject . Along these lines, on the off chance that you start with a horrible subject, not exclusively will you end up with a poor paper, however you chance demolishing the astounding impression that the rest of your application makes.</p> <p>The school article is among the most overwhelming parts of the school application. School application articles are frequently the most troublesome part of the application method. Luckily, universities will contemplate you in the event that you decide to join your adoration for writing in your exposition. They do need you to have solid convictions that you're willing to represent, and some paper addresses offer you the chance to do only that. </p> <p>Listed here are the commonplace slip-ups that may happen while composing your exposition. In spite of the fact that it is clear for an account paper, it may be hazy why one needs to offer enough subtleties for an enticing or possibly a procedure exposition, close by with the remainder of the sorts. You may keep on saving your factious articles for your forthcoming activity portfolio on the off chance that they're exceptionally reviewed. </p>

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Unusual Article Uncovers the Deceptive Practices of If You Go over the Set Amount of Characters in a College Essay

<h1> Unusual Article Uncovers the Deceptive Practices of If You Go over the Set Amount of Characters in a College Essay</h1> <h2> The Hidden Facts on If You Go over the Set Amount of Characters in a College Essay </h2> <p>Here are five simple procedures to assist you with having the word tally back on your confirmations exposition and still establish a great first connection. Follow these recommendations and a 500-word affirmations exposition cutoff ought not be an issue. Your very own paper should give school affirmations groups a depiction of who you are as an individual and who you try to turn out to be nevertheless you don't have to hold nothing back or decipher as long as you can remember story. On the off chance that you have any inquiries in regards to the organization or are battling with a short cutoff time, our composing specialists are quite often enchanted to help you. </p> <p>I will be the second in my family which will be going to school. While choosing a school network, you're picking an area where you believe you could live, learn, and prosper. Since you may see, setting off to a junior college is an extraordinary thought for such a significant number of components. Junior colleges give comparative if not the specific chances to understudies without causing obligation that can't be afforded.</p> <p>As educational cost swells each schedule year, understudy enlistment is starting to diminish. Most schools are satisfied with their organizations, and they should be. Besides, the understudy will end up at the off base school and perhaps extremely disappointed. </p> <p>If you are experiencing an inability to write, skirt this absolute first sentence, and work on the rest of your article. It's troublesome enough to find out what things to incorporate when offered a specific inquiry to response to compose. Because you discover one article expressing that something is precise, that doesn't really mean it's a demonstrated truth that you may use in your exploration. Should you conclude you should visit around one of the buzzword exposition subjects referenced beforehand, an excellent way to deal with recount to an increasingly common story is to focus on one explicit second and work starting there. </p> <p>You additionally should ensure your article is reasonable your thoughts stream and your contentions bode well. The individual articulation is the sole bit of your application at which you can show confirmations officials your own character. In the event that you don't wish to lose your direction, make a framework. The blueprint is only one of the most noteworthy activities in each paper type composing process. </p> <h2>The Benefits of If You Go over the Set Amount of Characters in a College Essay </h2> <p>It may sound as a task, and it'll surely take a generous amount of work. There's no moderate warm-up or expansive presentation toward the start of the paper. Before you start, there are a few things you need to think about composing an article. You may likewise discover bunches of fruitful example expositions on the web. </p> <p>Susan We urge candidates to think of an attitude which they are building up an individual proclamation in the spot of an exposition to the entrance advisory boards. This ensures there's an ordinary length for the entirety of the papers a school gets, regardless of designing or textual style. Luckily, universities will ponder you if you decide to consolidate your adoration for writing in your exposition. You may see school exposition layouts on the web that offer rules about how to structure your paper and what comments in every individual passage. </p> <p>This is the essential part at which you ought to make your examination. You have to tell the manner in which the profile was developed. You don't wish to compose what adds up to a review of your exercises and achievements that you will list in various pieces of the application. The Auto-Save highlight will guarantee you won't lose any progressions while altering, even if you leave the site and return later. < /p>

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Positive Impact Of Christopher Columbus s Discoveries

Positive Impact of Christopher Columbus’s Discoveries The world is a better place because of Christopher Columbus’ important discoveries in the New World. His explorations resulted in the vast expansion of property for Europe, the exchange of goods and cultures between countries and a change in the worldview of geography. Columbus’s explorations were the catalyst for unprecedented trade known as the Columbian Exchange, which started the exchange of goods and ideas that would last for centuries and change the world forever. His discoveries unearthed new perspectives and created a mix of diverse biology between Europe and the New World. These exchanges changed the world we live in today and will continue to fuel centuries of exploration and discoveries. The Columbian Exchange was the beginning of the expansion of trade between the New World and Europe. The Columbian Exchange started the flow of goods between continents that had not shared the same borders since Pangaea. Columbus’ voyage, along with the many voyages that followed, disrupted much of the biological segregation brought about by continental drift. (McNeil, 1). Journalist Charles Mann states in his research for his book, 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, on the Columbian Exchange that â€Å"No other person, changed the face of the Earth as radically as Columbus did. Columbus crossing of the Atlantic, Mann says, marked the start of a new age, not only for the Americas but also for Europe, AsiaShow MoreRelatedPositive Impact Of Christopher Columbus Discoveries1249 Words   |  5 PagesPositive Impact of Christopher Columbus’ Discoveries The world is a better place because of Christopher Columbus’ important discoveries in the New World. His explorations resulted in the vast expansion of property for Europe, the exchange of goods and cultures between countries and a change in the worldview of geography. Columbus’s explorations were the catalyst for unprecedented trade known as the Columbian Exchange, which started the exchange of goods and ideas that would last for centuriesRead MoreThe Discovery Of The New World903 Words   |  4 PagesAfter the discovery of the New World in 1492 many issues and uproars took place. Particularly, Christopher Columbus viewed America as an opportunity for mankind to begin again. While Bartolomeo de las Cases considered the New World a place of abuse for the Native Americans and took the initiative to save the Native people. In general, the Europeans felt that the America had benefits and major setbacks of coming to the new lands. The following documents â€Å"The Meani ng of America†, â€Å"Utilizing the NativeRead MoreThe Impact Of Maritime Technology On The Age Of Exploration1264 Words   |  6 Pagesof Exploration The innovation of maritime technology has revolutionized travel throughout history. Prior to ships and sea travel, humans were separated by vast oceans and confined to their homeland for life. Because of these large boundaries, discoveries and inventions were only shared within land masses and trade as a whole was very limited. This uncharted, inaccessible territory caused a major separation of mankind. However, these oceans sparked curiosity and desire for explorers to venture beyondRead MoreInfluence Of Science And Religion1564 Words   |  7 Pages1. Q) Compare and contrast the influence of science and religion in the development of humanity. Discuss both the positive and the negative. A) The systematic testing of observations, and the belief of something larger than ourselves, have been part of the human experience since time began. Both science and religion have influenced human thought and civilization. When a question could not be answered by time and observation, people fell back on spiritual explanationsRead MoreEffects Of European Exploration On The World1252 Words   |  6 PagesEffects Of European Exploration By the late 1400’s into the 1500’s, European countries began to expand into the rest of the world. This resurgence of trade interest resulted in a demand for foreign goods and exploration of water routes. This Age of Exploration united the Americas with Europe, Asia, and Africa. The exchanges were plentiful and stabilizing for many communities. However, along with the positive influences, came the negative aspects, which impacted cultures and civilizations aroundRead MoreEffects Of European Expansion On America1407 Words   |  6 PagesKyle Young Ms. Hagler Western Civilization 3/08/16 The Effects of European Expansion For many generations, it was taught that the expansion of Europe to the Americas, (also known as the European expansion), had a huge impact on all societies of the old world. The importance of this was taught to societies all across the world, and was indeed a necessary occurrence. Up until recently, the idea was never given any real thought for the majority of people as to how, over many generations in the familyRead MoreChristopher Columbus s Discovery Of The America1132 Words   |  5 PagesChristopher Columbus’s discovery of the America’s was monumental. His exploration of the New World impacted the culture, and development of America. One of these effects was the expansion of goods and products in the decades after Columbus’s first contact with Americans. Other effects included how these goods and products affected Amerindians and Europeans which also influenced the Columbian Exchange. Christopher Columbus’s influence on the Americas and Europe i s the main reason why he is stillRead MoreThe European Expansion Of Europe1286 Words   |  6 PagesFor many generations, it was taught that the expansion of Europe to the Americas, (also known as the European expansion), had a huge impact on all societies of the old world. The importance of this was taught to societies all across the world, and was indeed a necessary occurrence. Up until recently, the idea was never given any real thought for the majority of people as to how, over many generations in the family and throughout the passage of time, how they precisely got where they are currentlyRead MoreThe Age Of Exploration And Its Effects On Economic And Political Power1611 Words   |  7 Pagesto be fatal as the monarchical control over the economy slowly began to decline as other competing European countries, particularly England was more focused on capitalism based structure.The Age of Exploration for the Iberian countries proved the positive and negative effects of globaliz ation. Since the Iberian nation’s focused on the accumulation of wealth than investing it into infrastructure. In other words, their greed for trade monopolies and territorial expansion for luxury necessities, ledRead MoreAntigua Colonization : Sugar Is Sweeter With Slavery Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pagespeople. Antigua was spotted by Christopher Columbus during his voyage to find the America s, but rather he found an island full of Caribs (Antigua and Barbuda). Christopher Columbus was a thrill seeking adventurer and due to the fact that Antigua was first invaded by Spain we have the right to assume that he informed leaders of his discovery. Columbus never actually settled on Antigua, but rather traveled to Hispaniola in search for goods (Ellicott). Had Columbus went to Antigua he would have

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

System Management Overview

Questions: 1. In order to help SIQ management, define what information systems are and briefly explainhow information systems are important to future operations at SIQ. While answering this question, explore the different kinds of information systems that could be beneficial to any small business. 2. Identify and discuss the problems faced by SIQ and list these problems in order of priority. 3. What are the business requirements of SIQ? Which business processes should SIQ computerise and what benefits would that bring about for SIQ? 4. Which types of information system/s can help SIQ manage its business issues and fulfil business requirements? Explain in detail, how each information system that you propose will assist SIQs efficiency and contribute to the firms competitive advantage. 5. How can business decision making be improved as a result of the information systems /technologies that you are proposing? 6. How can the proposed new locations for SIQ connect effectively to each other? Explain how SIQ may utilise technologies such as the intranet, extranet, internet and mobile applications to communicate with SIQs key stakeholders. 7. What are the possible security, ethical and privacy issues that all stakeholders of SIQ need to be aware of? What systems could be implemented to address these issues? 8. What change related issues is SIQ likely to encounter? How should SIQ manage this change process? Answer: Executive Summary Expansion for any business organization irrespective of is size is always a key factor to growth. However, it is also important to understand that focusing on expansion of business has its own share of challenges and issues which an expanding organization might have to deal with. Over a period of time, it has been observed that due to rapid evolution of information technology and various aspects related to it, many organisations have found it difficult to cope up to integrate its existing business processes with the information technology and leverage benefit from it. In fact, organisations have failed at times to establish a uniform platform where their business processes can be mapped with the information technology, and can be improved further in terms of productivity and efficiency (Lapointe Rivard, 2007, pp.89-107). That is why, scaling up the business to a level, where existing business structure and processes are able to exist in harmony with implemented IT infrastructure and systems. Organisations whether small or big, face issue related to IT solution implementation especially when they are into transformational mode, which means they are adopting from manual process of functioning towards are digital/automated way of functioning. That is why; organisations if not prepared well, find implementation of information systems to improve its business process tedious at times. Similar is the case of organization mentioned in the case study. Study in Queensland (SIQ) is a boutique education recruitment firm, which is owned by Ms. Hui Chia, and is located in Brisbanes CBD (Central Business District). Case study highlights the growth of SIQ over a period of time. Initially, SIQ started as a small firm based in Windsor. Over a period of time, SIQ has witnessed gradual growth in its business. Despite of growth in business in terms of volume of students and revenue, SIQ has been depending mainly on its manual process of operation only, and if observed, it can be clearly seen that SIQ has hardly any dependency on information systems, which means, that there is tremendous scope of improvement in the productivity of SIQ operational processes. Hence, it is important to understand that what can be the potential strategy which should be adopted by SIQ, so that it can successfully scale up its business with use of information systems. Hence, analyzing the situation of SIQ in its current context, and finding an appropriate solution to it, is the core objective of this report. 1. Introduction SIQ was established as an organization with objective of recruiting international students for admission into various Australian universities, private colleges and TAFEs located in Queensland. After few months of operations, it was clear to founder of SIQ, that it is important to implement and effectively use information systems, and IT to further improve the efficiency of the business. Based on the case study it can be said that currently majority of the processes in SIQ are highly unstructured in nature, which at times might lead to loss of information such as student information, payment information etc. Loss of such nature can prove costly to business, as there are several other competitors as well who are much more productive than SIQ, hence SIQ might lose business due to its unprofessional appearing operational conduct. This unstructured way of managing information can be understood by the example of student record maintenance, which is filed in paper filed. Even payment proces sing methods are manual in nature (Laudon Laudon, 2011). This situation would have been idle for a business when number of student approaching it would have been only handful. In case of SIQ, increase in volume of international students, there has been growth in terms of revenue as well. Growth in business of SIQ has also ensured increased flow of information within organization which has to be maintained through manual process as well. Increase in information can lead to overwhelming situation if not managed and stored in a structured manner, and often leads to loss of information due to manual approach of management. Another, critical business strategy which SIQ is focusing on is its expansion in other cities. Core thought process behind expansion plan is to cover more universities and potential students. However, it is essential to understand that if SIQ continues with its current approach of management then scaling up the business will be extremely challenging, as it will further increase the information flow in the organization, even if SIQ plans to implement information systems to stream line its business processes, then it is important that any such implementation has to be done through a structured approach, so that there is seamless integration of business processes with information systems and accordingly business can extract a uniform view of all the processes and operations (Lees Lees, 1987, pp.6-13). In order to address problem of SIQ and suggest a potential approach which it can follow, it is necessary to setup a strategy through which information system can be implemented across all the locations of SIQ, and integrate it closely. However, it is important to understand that this report will also focus on critical aspects such as system integrations, and all potential issues which might arise due to implementation of the information systems. 2. Discussion Context It is a well-accepted fact that, in a highly globalized and digitized world, no organization can ignore the important of information systems in the business. Irrespective of the size of the business, information systems and applications are playing critical role in enabling business processes to an efficient and productive level. In case of SIQ, it can leverage upon through use of various enterprise level applications suites to streamline its existing business process, remove any gaps and make it more efficient in nature. However, one important aspect related to small business organisations is availability of funds to scale up. In such scenario, organisations like SIQ need to ensure that they opt for information systems which are capable of addressing its requirement, rather than offering something which is not required by SIQ. For SIQ it is also critical to setup a project plan which can establish a time and budget guidelines within which it should focus on the implementation of the information system. At times, it has been observed that organisations embark on the journey of implementing information system, without having significant amount of understanding about the concept of information system and its classification itself, which at times can lead to wrong expectations level among the stakeholders who are expected to be benefited from the solution. That is why, it is necessary to understand the concept of information system before a strategy related to information system implementations can be suggested for SIQ. One might confuse the term information systems as just hardware and software applications in context of information technology. However this is partially true, because information is not just computer software and hardware. In fact it can be defined as a system or environment where people and technology in form of software and hardware interact with each other; this interaction is focused on interpreting various types of data, and extracting/storing/accessing relevant result from it. In present business environment, information systems are not just limited to private sector or public sector business only, today information system has its presence in almost every type of organization across the globe. Information systems are supporting variety of business processes of an organization such as decision-making, operations, supply chain, human resource management, and operations etc. It has been observed that often, business organisations confuse information communication technology with information systems, which is incorrect. Organisations need to understand that ICT is just an enabler which helps in implementing the concepts of IS, whereas information systems are focused more on identifying the business processes, and how various entities interact in that process. Based on this analysis information systems are designed and implemented to support the business processes. In information systems, there are several critical elements such as hardware, software applications, business procedures, and people involved in it. If the same concept is replicated on SIQ, then it can be clearly observed that all the above mentioned elements of IS are present in SIQs day to day operations, however, there is no structured approach towards managing these applications, which is one major issue with SIQ. With proposed scaling up of the business, there is requirement for founder of SIQ and all her staff to channelize their efforts towards understanding the importance of information systems, and how it can be implemented, so that redundancy present in the information and other data security related issues can be sorted out. Another important aspect with SIQ is its proposed expansion across different locations. In a situation of expansions, SIQ needs to focus on integration strategy of the information systems as well. Integration is important to be achieved because firstly it will allow founder of the company to have better control on the business. Secondly, seamless integration will allow real time update of information across business, which will reduce data redundancy. 3. Key Business requirements Business processes and Operations After analysis of case study of SIQ, it can be said that following are identified business processes and operations: One critical requirement for SIQ is related to upgrade of existing technology infrastructure, it can be understood by the fact which is mentioned in the case study, which clearly mentions that how founder of the company Hui still relies on her college days laptop along with one multi-functional device. Upgrade in IT hardware and technology has to be in alignment with increase in the business of SIQ. Since. SIQ has been gradually expanding, and its business operations increasing, it has become important for SIQ to accordingly upgrade the infrastructure to support its business requirement. Student information is one of the highest critical data for SIQ, as its entire business is dependent on student and information related to them. Hence, SIQ has major issue with the way it manages student information. There are numerous activities which takes place during the process of student information management. For example storing student details, offer letter for student, their tracking letters of offer, confirmation related details etc. all these processes and information are integration part of student information management framework. That is why it is important for SIQ to focus on development of system like SIM (Student information management) through which it can get a consolidated view of information related to a particular student. Marketing and promotion is also an important business activity which needs to be taken care by SIQ. There are lot of promotional material and other marketing related data which currently might be unstructured in nature. In order to scale further, it is important for SIQ to ensure that it successfully manages this information through use of information systems. With rapid emergence of internet every business has an online presence which allows its customers to stay updated. In case of SIQ also, it can focus on launching its website or a web portal through which all the students enrolled with can file for their application, and track it accordingly. Lastly, employee information management is one of the critical requirements which SIQs information system needs to address. Leave applications, pay roll processing, attendance records etc. are critical information for the business, especially in a scenario where SIQ is planning to expand; it becomes important to have a system in place which can allow the business to get a consolidated view of its employee information working across different locations. 4. Business Decision-Making Business decision-making is always an area of concern for an organization. Its ability to take correct and timely decision identifies its capability to succeed. However, in case of SIQ, decision making ability is relatively unstructured, because decisions are based on the information, and for effective decision making having access to structured and managed information is must (Leon, 1991). For example, in a situation where SIQ owner has to identify poor performers in her organization, then there is no system thorough which she can get a consolidated view her employees performance. Similarly, there is no way through which SIQ can analyze its past students and their data or current students data that must have used services of SIQ. Such kind of situation is mainly due to unstructured form of information present in the organization, which ultimately leads to delay in decision making on critical aspects or clients, this can be harmful for future growth of the business, as many of the SI Qs competitors are already well adapted towards the use of information system, and using it effectively. That is why; it has become important for SIQ to implement an information system which can help it to integrate the enterprise level information such as related to students, universities, and employees in a way where it can take decisions quickly based on the structured form of information in a proactive manner. Strategies for competitive Advantage If we analyze the case study of SIQ carefully, then one important point which comes out is the random/unstructured/ad-hoc approach of SIQ to manage its business processes. Even though SIQ started as a small company by its founder, however over a period of time its operations have grown up significantly. But despite of growth in business, management of the business is still unstructured in nature which is more like a startup organization. Hence, in order to gain competitive advantage, SIQ should first focus on scaling up its business process like a full-fledged company. It should streamline its business processes to match its competitors. Secondly, having a presence on internet is a must in present scenario, especially in a situation where SIQ is dealing with international students, it becomes important for the organization to setup its website which not only provides information but allows its potential customers and existing students to record or extract information related to their application or admission process. If SIQ can manage to scale up its business through online channel as well, then it can boost its competitiveness, and can also help it cut significant amount of operational cost. Lastly, in order to gain competitive advantage in presence business scenario, it is extremely important for business to create awareness about its brand or organization. In order to do this, it is important that SIQ should engage in dedicated and sustained marketing and promotional campaign through both online as well as offline channels. By adopting this approach SIQ will be able to its brand value, and visibility in the industry it is functioning. 5. Key Information Requirements Key information requirements which can be identified on the basis of case study provided for SIQ are as follows: Requirement related to implementation of enterprise level information system to enable complete integration of the business functions present across SIQ. Structuring of student related information such as admission data, applications, fees etc. Currently this process is manual in nature, which at times might lead to loss of information delaying into business related decision (Vance Siponen, 2012). Hence there is requirement to streamline this process, where rather than using excel sheets or papers to manage this information, there should be proper student information management system which should be capable of storing all the student related data, and allow to retrieve the data as and when required. Another critical requirement is related to employee information management. Information like employee attendance, salary processing etc. should be managed in an automated manner rather than manually handling it. Considering the fact that SIQ is planning to expand its business across various locations, hence it becomes important for it have an integration strategy for all the information systems across different locations. With proposed implementation of information system, all the data and information related to students and employees will be exposed on internal as well external communication network. Hence, last major requirement for SIQ is to secure its information. Hence, it needs to setup a system where it can monitor any type of information breach, and can safeguard its information from any unauthorized accesses. 6. Information System Options Transaction Processing Systems Transaction processing systems (TPS) can be defined as system of computing where work is divided into indivisible operations known as transactions. Hence, a TPS can be defined as an information system which is integration of different types of software applications and hardware, which enables it to process numerous types of transaction to generate a relevant result. In case of SIQ, it requires implementation of TPS which is capable of real time processing. Real time means, that transactions processing takes place the moment they are being entered into the system. This can be achieved by implementation of web based application present on both internal network (Intranet) and external network (extranet), and will allow employees and customers to input data and generate result as per the data inserted into the system (Longenecker et al, 2013). Hence, a student can fill up his application form, and TPS should be capable of generating an online receipt, or an admission confirmation form. H owever one important aspect related to this system will be its accessibility. Accessibility to this system should be decided on the basis of the grants and rights provided to the employees and customers Data from this TPS will be managed in a central database which will store all the mentioned data. Reason behind implementation of TPS is to ensure that data which is getting updated should be viewed in same form to all the users who might be trying to access it from different locations of SIQ, which will ensure that there is no communication gap to redundancy in a data. Enterprise Collaboration Systems In a globalized world, organisations are working different locations. Hence in such conditions it becomes important for organisations to have proper and smooth collaboration among its employees and stakeholders, which can be achieved through enterprise collaboration systems. Today there are different types of ECS based on the size of organization. However, SIQ should opt for an ECS which is not proprietary, and has open source license associated with it. This will ensure that SIQ need not to invest huge amount of capital to procure such system. Such system can be implemented on the organizational network (Intranet) with various business functions such as HR, finance, marketing, sales etc. part of it. Hence people with relevant authorization can access the system and perform tasks such as insertion, editing, or deletion of data. Considering the fact that this data will be linked to central data repository, hence unique view of any data will be provided to the end user reducing any typ e of data conflict. Hence, each business function can be allocated their dedicated virtual space, where they can discuss their function level policies and take decisions on it. Management Information Systems MIS are also type of information systems which are focused towards analysis and facilitation of various operational and strategic activities which takes place within an organizational boundary. In case of SIQ, MIS system will enable SIQ management to improve its decision making capability. MIS will help SIQ in generation various types of reports such as student enrollment report, or number of admission in a particular session etc. Based on these reports management of SIQ can take timely decisions. MIS reports will also help Hui to sales and marketing related decisions on the basis of quarterly, monthly and annual reports of business. Collaboration and Communication Based on the case study of SIQ, it can be clearly said that collaboration and communication is one of the key requirement it has. Considering the fact that SIQ plans to expand its business in different locations in Australia, it becomes important for it to ensure that employees working at these locations are able to collaborate and communicate seamlessly (Malhotra Temponi, 2010, pp.28-37). For example for communication across locations SIQ can implement communication system supported by VoIP (Voice over internet protocol). This will not only allow SIQ to establish a superior communication network within organization, but will also allow it save operational cost on communication due to low cost of communication through VoIP supported network. It can implement collaborative software such as Microsoft SharePoint which enables teams across different locations to collaborate with each other, share important documents in a controlled environment and share their views on any specific busin ess problem. Hence, SIQ should focus on collaboration and communication aspect if it wants to achieve successful transformation. 7. Implementation and Change Management For any transformation process in an organization, its implementation strategy and the way change is managed is a critical aspect. Change management ensures that organization is prepared well for handling the changes in advance, and is capable of aligning its processes to the changed business environment. Change management further improves the process of implementation of an information system as it brings a formal layer into entire process in which before implementation of every module or function, it potential risk or impact on the organization is analyzed. In a situation where there might be adverse impact then accordingly actions are taken to minimize the risk (Shapiro Varian, 2013). For SIQ it is important to understand that what all changes will take place in its organizational environment as part of information system changes. Based on its analysis, SIQ should develop necessary plans to handle a potential impact of the change. Lastly, as part of change management SIQ should ensure that its employees are trained well in order to handle the new information systems which are being implemented. Hence, once the above mentioned factors are properly addressed by management of SIQ, then only it should proceed with the proposed implementation of the information system. Support for Business-Decision Making In order to support the business decision making, MIS will play a major role. Compared to current situation where business decision making is relatively unstructured in nature, it is expected to be streamlined once the MIS is implemented. With proposed plan, management of SIQ will give a consolidated view of the business and various types of information flowing through it. MIS will further help in extracting the relevant information and enabling the management to take impactful decisions for the benefit of the business. MIS systems will also enable the founder of SIQ to analyze the overall performance of the business, and take steps to improve the shortcomings. 8. Security and Ethical Issues One of the major issues which can come up with proposed change is related to security and ethical issues. With proposed changes there will be number of transactions which will take place in the organization. However, it will also expose the information to potential threat from outside world. Hence, it is important for SIQ to develop a comprehensive information security policy for the organization. This information policy will first identify all the potential risk points in the organization post implementation of information systems (Stair Reynolds, 2011). Once risks are identified, it will further guide the organization to setup control points through which flow of information can be monitored, hence as a potential security measure implementation team can focus on implementing a firewall which will filter the incoming and outgoing information traffic in the information systems of the organization. Summary and recommendations Based on the case study, and above analysis it can be said that SIQ is mainly a small business organization which is gradually moving towards becoming a medium level organization. That is why it is important for SIQ management to identify only that level of information system which can be implemented in the budget or funding available with the organization. It is important for organization to ensure that information system to be implemented should be such, that it should be scalable in nature in future, especially considering the gradual growth of SIQ, and expansion of the organization (Swanson, 1988). Before, focusing on system implementation SIQ should also focus on analyzing its current process, and identifying the gaps present, so that to be processes can be designed and mapped with the information system to be implemented. 5. References Lapointe, L., Rivard, S. 2007. A triple take on information system implementation.Organization Science,18(1), 89-107. Laudon, K. C., Laudon, J. P. 2011. Essentials of management information systems. Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Lees, J. D., Lees, D. D. 1987. Realities of small business information system implementation.Journal of Systems Management,38(1), 6-13. Leon, A. 1991. The respective roles of user participation and user involvement in information system implementation success. Longenecker, J., Petty, J., Palich, L., Hoy, F. 2013.Small business management. Cengage Learning. Malhotra, R., Temponi, C. 2010. Critical decisions for ERP integration: Small business issues. International Journal of Information Management, 30(1), 28-37. Shapiro, C., Varian, H. R. 2013. Information rules: a strategic guide to the network economy. Harvard Business Press. Stair, R., Reynolds, G. 2011.Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning. Swanson, E. B. 1988.Information system implementation: Bridging the gap between design and utilization. Homewood, IL: Irwin. Vance, A., Siponen, M. T. 2012. IS security policy violations: a rational choice perspective. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 24(1), 21-41.

Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product

Question: Discuss about the Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product. Answer: Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption can be addictive and harmful to the consumers and the economy on general. It is therefore important that they are curbed to ensure that both the government is able to maximize on revenue while consumers are left with consumption levels that is healthy to growth and development both within themselves and the government as well. A sin tax is therefore imposed on alcohol to further discourage the high consumption rates. The demand for alcohol is inelastic which implies that consumers are bound to pay the bulk of the tax. According to Forgaty (2006), the addictive aspect of it means that the government tax will not deter consumers from taking alcohol and so an increment in the tax is only unconsciously felt by a consumer. Therefore, determining the actual bearer of the burden of tax imposed by the government demands in-depth analysis of the elasticity of demand and supply as shown below (Boffat et al, 2009). With regard to alcohol, the highest burden of tax falls on the side with the inelastic demand which in this case refers to the buyers or rather the consumers of alcohol. Inelasticity of demand alludes to the aspect of consumers not being responsive to the changes in price whereby the quantity demanded remains relatively high despite the introduction of a tax. The above situation indicates that demand is relatively inelastic than supply meaning consumers have to bear the burden of the tax increment according to Pettinger (2004). However, should the supply of alcohol be more inelastic than demand, then it would have indicated sellers paying most of the tax burden that has been imposed on the sin. As indicated by the inelastic demand, the government passes a tax to the consumer without much of a change in the equilibrium quantity. For instance, assuming that the government imposes a 10% increment on all brands of alcohol and the average brand of alcohol costs $15. However, before the tax imposition, an average of 56.8 million bottles of alcohol were consumed daily that stands at a total expenditure of $852 million (Nocco, Ottaviano Salto, 2014). After a 15% tax , the number of bottles consumed per day slightly drops to 54.2million on average and factoring all brands. The total expenditure on alcohol stands at $843million which basically implies that the consumers have to bear the burden that has been imposed because there is only a slight change in the average consumption rates. Inelastic demand comes sets this up (Ramstedt, 2012). In diagram A, the demand curve is given as elastic while the supply curve is inelastic which implies that consumers very much aware of any changes in the market with regard to the prices of alcohol. When the government increases taxation on the product, it immediately makes consumers conscious of this change such they will reduce their consumption. There is wedge between the price paid by consumers pp and that by producers pc. In other words, the total price paid by consumers is retained by the producers and paid to the government in form of taxes. In the second instance shown in diagram B, the demand curve is inelastic while the supply curve is elastic. Essentially, it means that consumers are not responsive to any changes in the price of alcohol. The tax incidence falls disproportionately on consumers as reflected by the different between the prices they pay pc and the equilibrium price pe. In this case, sellers receive a very small price before the tax but the difference is relati vely smaller than the change in the consumers price (Simshauser Whish-Wilson, 2017). In summary, the elasticity of supply curve coupled with inelastic demand curve means that consumers are unresponsive to changes in the price of alcohol which again indicates consumers paying the burden of the tax increase. Maximization of alcohol consumption in an economy is based on the notion that alcohol should be set at a level that is optimal for the society. The persistent and widespread abuse of alcohol in the society according to Stockwell Thomas (2013), means that the social cost is not all maximized as well. A simple demand and supply model prods that a minimum price above the equilibrium is likely to cause a surplus which actually projects an increase in supply while dwarfing the demand (Dunne et al, 2013). However, with alcohol, supply and demand being elastic it means that consumers are very much responsive to any subtle change in the price of the commodity. As a result, it means that the burden mostly lies on the sellers who can then extend it to the consumer through price discrimination. In essence, it leads to market saturation. Increasing excise taxes as opposed to minimum price on alcohol is vital when looked at from the public health perspective whereby, it may lead to a fraction of producers downgrading the quality of their products. This leads to a relatively low tax on some of the beverages despite the fact that alcohol content in it is high. However, the drawback to the Minimum price is that has the potential to increase revenue in most of its jurisdictions which then leads to inflation of the prices of its closely related commodities (Boffat et al, 2014). Furthermore, they will remain within the privately licensed alcohol retailers making the government to forego it altogether unless means of recouping it are advanced and implemented. On the other hand, there is an appeal created by the taxation because it leads to an increment in the revenue which is then collected by the government using its well-established mechanisms and hence ploughed back to the community. In essence, circulation of income is community based while the domination of individual interests on the other side of the spectrum only leads to loss of income that is meant to compensate people for paying the higher prices on alcohol. While the minimum price offers a greater reduction in the heavy consumption at a much lower cost to consumers, it is not inclusive to all the population but excise tax does by providing incentives for the improvement of the lives of people using their own taxes as aforementioned. Monopolistic competition exhibits a highly inelastic demand in the short run which implies that consumers are not sensitive to changes in price. As a result, firms are bound to make economical profits because they can adjust prices to maximize on revenues. The profit is therefore positive in the short run but in the long run, it starts approaching zero which alludes to an elastic demand whereby consumers are able to detect any changes in prices and either increase or reduce their consumption levels (Warren, Harding Lloyd, 2005). In this case, firms are tempted to increase prices with the belief that it will lead to an increase in the consumption levels. On the contrary, consumers react to such changes by reducing their consumption indicating a rather a responsive attitude to producer tactics to maximize on economic profit. In this case, the manufacturers price of the table will reduce in the long run because the inefficiencies in the market sets in which achievers neither of the productive value nor the allocative value. In essence, the profit maximizing level of production will lead to a net loss in both the producer and the consumer surplus (Thomas, 2012). Basically, what makes the table manufacturer to experience a reduction in the price of the table in the long run is that there is elasticity of demand. The price will move towards zero more so when there is any slight change in the price of a good. Furthermore, according to Klimex, Roberts Xu (2017), in the long run, in the long run, a monopolistic competitive market will produce goods in which the long run marginal cost (LRMC) curve makes an intersection with the marginal revenue (MR). However, the Long run average cost (LRAC) curve will indicate the least price that a good will be sold and in this case, a table. The price that the table is sold falls on the Average Revenue (AR) curve. This implies any fall back which eventually means heading to LRAC will break the firm farther. Oligopolistic markets have interdependence in their decision making. Situations that a firm decides for instance a massive advertising campaign, it will provoke the same course of action among its counterparts. Secondly, there are no barriers to entry and exit of firms in the market. Most of the time, firms have a lenient a meagre operational costs across the industry. It means that almost all of them lie within the same scale of operation with regard to profits and losses. However, in the long run some barriers will creep in because of the emergence of economies of scale whereby firms expand their scale of production much to the disadvantage of those wishing to enter the market. Lastly, they undertake massive advertising of their products. Firms are generally competitive because none of them exercises market dominance. So in order to increase sales, they have to spend heavily on advertising to capture the market. Australia has oligopolistic firms which can be identified based on the aforementioned characteristics. Oligopolistic markets in Australia includes Bridgestone, Hoyts, Dunlop, Coca Cola, Carlton United, Kellos Dulux among others. These firms sell quite similar products as indicated by Bridgestone and Dunlop which deal with car tyres. However, the fact that there are many of them means that they have heavily invested in adverting of their products to capture their market. Taking part in advertising as influenced by another firm also connotes to instances of group behavior as well as interdependence which is a key feature of oligopoly. Monopolistically structured market is characterized by the existence of restrictions to entry and exit of other firms in the industry. This is down to the fact that he enjoys massive profits which make them control inputs in the market (Nikaido, 2015). Other firms cannot dislodge it as a result making it difficult to penetrate the market. Secondly, it is basically a single seller coupled with many buyers who can take part in unhealthy competition such as price discrimination to scare of other firms and hence establish market dominance. He is also the price maker. Thirdly, a monopolistically structured market is precisely based on the absence of close substitutes in its products since all his units of commodities are similar (Dhalla Oliver, 2013). In Australia, the supermarket industry has seen a far entrenched monopoly in terms of Woolworths and to some extent Coles. These two firms although they have created another form of monopoly. They control 80% of the supermarket chains in th e country (Larder, Lyons Woolcock, 2014). Because of this, they enjoy super high profits which makes them untouchable. They then able to decide the prices of goods because others have to follow suit. A market duopoly results when a set of conditions are met. For instance, when two firms command a greater share of the market while the rest are basically operating on a very small budget. This makes the two establish more control by using tools such as price discrimination, patent rights among others. Generally lesser firms are then unable to catch up with these two elite firms. Mergers between two firms can also lead to duopoly. All firms may be in the same level of operation with regard to their assets, liabilities and capital and even the scope of their market. In other words, it could basically be a perfectly competitive market structure (Tyers, 2015). However, in order to control inputs in the market and generally in the economy, two firms decide to come together to strengthen their bargaining power in the allocation of resources in the market. This will then alienate the rest of the market and establish them as a monopoly. While this takes place, another group of firms may also break away to form a super alliance which will compete with the initial firm. In essence, there will be two big firms controlling the rest. Collusion is another ideal situation that leads to the creation of a duopoly. Two firms which may control closely related products decide to form a kind of partnership to enhance their control of their individual portfolios (Tanaka Sato, 2014). For example in 2012, Apple Company was accused of colluding with top publishers to control the e-book market by using its iBook store program. In the above diagram two firms, say Apple Company and one of the publishing firms are represented by Q1 and Q2 in which all of them have equal interest in the e-book business that they then produce at zero costs. Each firm sells its output in a straight line demand curve as indicated by maximum output 30 units. Each of these firms therefore acts on the assumption that its competitor will sell its own output to maximize profits. In this case, Apple and the publishers decide to produce half the output each as indicated by the isoprofit curve reaction of Q1 at 15 units while Q2 is also facing the same at 15 units. This means that collusion leads to half output production by the firms. Each of them reacts with regard to the inelasticity of demand. Once consumers are aware of this, it spells chaos for the firms involved. References Boffa J, Tilton E, Legge D, Genat B (2009)Reducing the harm from Alcohol, Tobacco and Obesity in Indigenous Communities: Key Approaches and ActionsReport prepared for the National Preventative Health Taskforce. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Dhalla, R., Oliver, C. (2013). Industry identity in an oligopolistic market and firms responses to institutional pressures.Organization Studies,34(12), 1803-1834. Dunne, T., Klimek, S. D., Roberts, M. J., Xu, D. Y. (2013). Entry, exit, and the determinants of market structure.The RAND Journal of Economics,44(3), 462-487. Fogarty, J. (2006).The nature and demand for alcohol: understanding elasticity.British Food Journal108: 316332 Klimek, S., Roberts, M., Xu, D. Y. (2017). Entry, Exit and the Determinants of Market Structure.Policy,6, 17. Larder, N., Lyons, K., Woolcock, G. (2014). Enacting food sovereignty: values and meanings in the act of domestic food production in urban Australia.Local Environment,19(1), 56-76. Nikaido, H. (2015).Monopolistic Competition and Effective Demand. (PSME-6). Princeton University Press. Nocco, A., Ottaviano, G. I., Salto, M. (2014). Monopolistic competition and optimum product selection.The American Economic Review,104(5), 304-309. Pettinger, T. (2014). Examples of elasticity. Economics Help. Retrieved from: https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/7019/economics/examples-of-elasticity/ Ramstedt, M. (2010).How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.Addiction105: 649654 Satoh, A., Tanaka, Y. (2014). Relative profit maximization and equivalence of Cournot and Bertrand equilibriums in asymmetric duopoly. Vol 1: 819-827 Simshauser, P., Whish-Wilson, P. (2017). Price discrimination in Australia's retail electricity markets: An analysis of Victoria Southeast Queensland.Energy Economics,62, 92-103. Stockwell, T., Thomas, G. (2013).Is alcohol too cheap in the UK? The case for setting a Minimum Unit Price for alcoholInstitute of Alcohol Studies. London Thomas, G. (2012)Price Policies to Reduce Alcohol-Related Harm in CanadaAlcohol Price Policy Series, Report 3. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Ottawa. Tyers, R. (2015). Service Oligopolies and Australia's Economy?Wide Performance.Australian Economic Review,48(4), 333-356. Warren, N., Harding A., Lloyd, R. (2005)GST and the changing incidence of Australian Taxes: 199495 to 200102.J Tax Res31: 1144